Project Results: Remote Sensing

The whole complex of radar interferometry processing, image analysis and synergistic use with optical data for environmental applications and the verification in ground-truth campaigns has been established and taught between project partners. The basis for operational state-of-the-art Earth Observation for environmental monitoring has been successfully built up. The study of forest and non-forest environments using data acquired through airborne or satellite-based imagines systems has been successfully applied and resulted in vegetation maps beyond earlier expectations (e.g. forest height, species composition).

The goal of the IRE RAS activity in the project was in a work with remotes sensing data, development of new techniques and software for data processing, participation in field trips and training the BSC SB RAS staff. Among them are:

- Generation of the PRI images, coherence maps, DEMs, interferograms and combination of multitemporal images, suitable for thematic analysis was made.
- An application of tools of formal classification of the ERS SAR data (cluster analysis, algorithm ISODATA) for classification of the forest covers and soils was done.
- A comparison of the ERS SAR data with SIR-C/X SAR data from SRL-1 flight was made.
- Field trip measurements in Barguzin Valley were conducted and ground truth data were collected. The information collected allowed for more reliable classification of ERS INSAR and multitemporal data:
RGB Composite
Selenga RGB Composite

Two types of forest (mixed and coniferous one) gave different picture on the phase difference image. The double-bounce effect was clear on the coniferous test site (Dubinino), it is thick wood without any underbrush looks like set of columns with thin horizontal branches, so the scattering scheme �trunk�ground� is of high probability there. Istomino forest is mixed and relatively sparse, with dense undergrowth, and there are trees of different height levels on the same area, and the only small region with evident double-bounce effect is pure pine-tree area.

Selenga  LHH LHV CHV

Next group of interesting features lay near Baikal coastline. There was also high phase difference, but the sign was alter. This area is flat marshland with rough microrelief. The month of October is usually rainy and sleety in the region, so this marshland represents water surface with a great many of little tussocks and hillocks. So here we can suppose the scattering scheme �water�tussock�. Water surface between tussocks was mirror-like, and the great deal of energy lost (small-scale amplitude values for this region give circumstantial evidence for such supposition), but some part is reflected in its turn by the nearest tussock: double-bounce effect (see attachments).

Thirdly, interferometric coherence and interferogram were calculated for area over Dubinino test site. This forest is situated on the gentle (but continually increasing to the east) slope with some horseshoe-like features along the Selenga valley: large arc stair of several meters height with flat semi-circular meadow �down step� and flat woody �up step�. These features and differences in trees� height for forest areas are evident on the interferometric fringes image.

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